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Signal Chain Basics #149: How to accurately measure electrode impedance for lead-off detection in ECG systems
Signal Chain Basics  
6/22/2019   Post a comment
How can you accurately measure this impedance to give reliable lead-off detection in ECGs?
Signal Chain Basics #148: Understanding the impact of offsets in fully differential amplifier circuits
Signal Chain Basics  
5/29/2019   3 comments
Most voltage amplifier circuit offsets are a result of the amplifierís input voltage offset, input bias current and input offset currents.
Brushless-DC motor systems for the uninitiated
Signal Chain Basics  
3/11/2019   2 comments
Most people are not familiar with electromechanical spinning. My goal here is to attempt to explain brushless-DC motors simply
Integrated RF-sampling transceivers enable fast frequency hopping, multiband and multimode operation
Signal Chain Basics  
2/2/2019   Post a comment
The latest direct radio frequency (RF)-sampling transceivers provide a number of powerful capabilities that enable advanced system features like multiband and multimode operation, as well as frequency translation and fast frequency hopping.
Maximizing output power from PLL synthesizer high-frequency open-collector outputs
Signal Chain Basics  
1/18/2019   1 comment
At the heart of a transceiver is usually a phase-locked-loop (PLL) synthesizer, which delivers a signal to downstream components such as mixers, filters and power amplifiers.
Overcoming common challenges driving an amplifier with a photodiode
Signal Chain Basics  
12/7/2018   1 comment
A transimpedance amplifier (TIA), which takes the current from a photodiode and converts it into a usable voltage with low output impedance, can provide effective gain for a photodiode signal.
Driving the reference input on a SAR ADC
Signal Chain Basics  
11/15/2018   Post a comment
In this article, Iíll provide an overview of SAR ADC reference input behavior and reference input drive circuit topologies
Solving for electrical fast transients in your designs
Signal Chain Basics  
10/26/2018   Post a comment
Although the name seems generic enough to encompass all kinds of voltage transients, electrical fast transients (EFTs) are pulses in systems that come as a result of a voltage source suddenly switching onto or off of an inductive load.
Understanding current sense amplifier data sheets to maximize safety system design margins
Signal Chain Basics  
10/15/2018   2 comments
The electrification of vehicles has spurred an increased demand in accurate current measurement in new electronic drive systems. Just like in the electrified power-train, accurate measurement of current is one method to improve ADAS design margins.
The basics of op amp loop-stability analysis: A tale of twin loop-gains
Signal Chain Basics  
8/30/2018   5 comments
This article showcases the advantages of an op amp loop-stability analysis method that I use myself and recommend to others.
RF-sampling ADCs for multiband receivers
Signal Chain Basics  
7/24/2018   3 comments
High-speed data converters can now digitize or generate signals directly at radio frequencies (RFs), replacing traditional RF components such as mixers and local oscillators (LOs) with digital processing
Image Reject Mixers Demystified
Signal Chain Basics  
6/1/2018   1 comment
The need to translate frequencies up or down is a basic signal-chain need. The key component used to do this is the mixer, which essentially multiplies two signals together
Understanding current-feedback fully differential amplifiers
Signal Chain Basics  
5/16/2018   1 comment
There are several features of current-feedback fully differential amplifiers that set them apart from voltage feedback fully differential amplifiers. This article will detail several of these differences and how they impact circuit design
Optimizing SAR ADC driver amplifier and RC filter circuit settling using SPICE
Signal Chain Basics  
4/11/2018   2 comments
In this article, Iíll show you how to optimize SAR driver amplifier and RC filter settling performance by using SPICE simulations.
Signal Chain Basics #134: Methods to precisely measure high currents
Signal Chain Basics  
3/19/2018   2 comments
As vehicles become more electrified, it becomes more critical to accurately monitor the current in many subsystems to ensure performance as well as long-term reliability.
Signal Chain Basics #133: Designing summing active filters
Signal Chain Basics  
2/22/2018   1 comment
In this article, Iíll describe a few easy steps that will convert any Sallen-Key (SK) or multiple feedback (MFB) active filter from a single-input filter to a summing active filter that gives the same response without difficult calculations or analysis
I2C switches: a closer look
Signal Chain Basics  
1/16/2018   Post a comment
Despite this reputation, I2C does have its challenges: a limited number of bits for a unique address can create address conflicts, or multiple devices may require different input voltages. Although solving these problems may seem straightforward, there are implication challenges to consider
Signal Chain Basics #131: RF-sampling DACs for multiband transmitters
Signal Chain Basics  
1/2/2018   Post a comment
High-speed data converters now digitize or generate signals directly at radio frequencies up to several gigahertz, replacing traditional radio-frequency (RF) components like mixers, local oscillators (LOs) and amplifiers. This article focuses on the transmitter (downlink) using an RF sampling digital-to-analog converter (DAC); my next article will cover the receiver (uplink)
High-frequency synchronization with multiple devices
Signal Chain Basics  
11/18/2017   2 comments
Some applications require the production of multiple clocks with a synchronous, adjustable phase. Many single-chip semiconductor solutions can accomplish this for low frequency applications
Signal Chain Basics #128: Optimizing solenoid control with precision current measurement
Signal Chain Basics  
9/9/2017   6 comments
Beyond simple on/off use cases, youíll find linear solenoids in many applications requiring precise linear motion and the regulation of pressure, fluid or air.
Signal Chain Basics #127: Estimating the total noise in a SAR ADC acquisition system
Signal Chain Basics  
8/31/2017   1 comment
In this article, I will discuss how to estimate the overall system noise for a successive-approximation-register (SAR) ADC acquisition system
Signal Chain Basics #119: 2-wire 4-20 mA sensor transmitter measurement basics
Signal Chain Basics  
12/11/2016   Post a comment
Today my focus is on avoiding common pitfalls when making measurements on 2-wire sensor transmitter designs
SIGNAL CHAIN BASICS #118: Time-interleaving high-speed ADCs
Signal Chain Basics  
11/28/2016   Post a comment
For high-speed ADCs, there is a tradeoff between performance, sample rate and power. Time interleave uses multiple ADCs sampling at different times to increase the effective sample rate, while providing the performance of a slower sample rate ADC.
Signal Chain Basics #117: Uses of CAN-FD for longer payloads in industrial applications
Signal Chain Basics  
10/25/2016   Post a comment
CAN flexible data rate, or CAN-FD, was introduced in 2012 to address this need. This article takes a look at some of the key features of FD and how this could be beneficial for industrial applications.
Signal Chain Basics #116: Combining signals for better performance
Signal Chain Basics  
9/13/2016   2 comments
When the phase noise performance is just not good enough, one possibility is to combine two or more signals that are in phase to generate a better phase noise signal. This concept applies to the scenario of combining two sides of a differential output to form a single-ended output or the combination of signals from two semiconductor chips of the same type and configuration.
Signal Chain Basics #115: The impact of the feedback resistance value on gain, bandwidth, and slew rate in current feedback amplifiers
Signal Chain Basics  
8/18/2016   7 comments
Current feedback (CFB) amplifiers have been available since the 1990s, but they are still a small percentage of the overall operational amplifier (op amp) market and may not be covered in basic electrical engineering classes.
Signal Chain Basics #114: Estimate the effect of DC/DC supply ripple on a SAR ADC acquisition system
Signal Chain Basics  
7/1/2016   Post a comment
When designing circuits with precision analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), designers must carefully consider all sources of noise in the acquisition system, including noise injected through the power supplies.
Signal Chain Basics #113: Precision current measurement optimizes motor control
Signal Chain Basics  
5/27/2016   Post a comment
In this article learn about options for measuring current in motor control applications, the strengths and challenges of these options, and how using precision current measurement can optimize the motor control solution
The basics of 4-20mA current loop transmitters
Signal Chain Basics  
5/5/2016   1 comment
The most common type of 4-20 mA transmitter is the 2-wire topology, or a 2-wire sensor transmitter
Growing importance of high-voltage fault protection for CAN transceivers
Signal Chain Basics  
4/11/2016   Post a comment
This article focuses on the increasing need for high-voltage bus pin fault protection for controller area network (CAN) transceivers across transportation industries.
Phase noise cancellation in high-speed data converter systems
Signal Chain Basics  
3/20/2016   Post a comment
Clock phase noise or jitter (which is phase noise integrated across offset frequency) is a significant concern for high-speed data converter systems, and in some cases it can limit system performance
How division impacts spurs, phase noise, and phase
Signal Chain Basics  
2/11/2016   Post a comment
It is common practice to create a desired frequency by dividing down a higher frequency.
Op amp basics: Small signal bandwidth and overall performance
Signal Chain Basics  
1/11/2016   1 comment
When selecting an op amp, one of the first specifications many engineers look for is bandwidth.
What is low-side current sensing?
Signal Chain Basics  
11/5/2015   4 comments
A quick reminder, low-side current-sensing is where the sense element, or shunt resistor, is placed in series with the load between the load and ground
Intrinsic op amp noise in a nut shell
Signal Chain Basics  
10/8/2015   Post a comment
For those wanting a quick and simple method to minimize noise, this article is for you.
Common-mode voltage for industrial transceivers
Signal Chain Basics  
9/29/2015   1 comment
Most differential field bus technologies, like CAN and RS485, specify a parameter called common-mode voltage. Common-mode voltage refers to the range of bus input voltages, with respect to the transceiverís ground, within which the transceiver maintains consistent input receiver thresholds.
SIGNAL CHAIN BASICS (Part 104): Understanding noise in ADCs
Signal Chain Basics  
8/24/2015   1 comment
As a data converter supplier, we are sometimes asked, which is our lowest noise analog-to-digital converter (ADC)?
SIGNAL CHAIN BASICS (Part 103): Integer Boundary Spurs
Signal Chain Basics  
7/9/2015   Post a comment
The phase-locked loop (PLL) in Figure 1 works by starting with a stable input frequency (fOSC). It is divided down by R to get the phase detector frequency (fPD), then multiplied by N to get the voltage-controller oscillator (VCO) frequency (fVCO). Finally, it is divided down by D to get the output frequency (fOUT). The output divider, D, is typically an integer, but it is possible for the N divider to be fractional. Devices can exist with multipliers on the input path, effectively making R fractional.
Signal Chain Basics (Part 102): How to Implement an Active, DC-Coupled Broadband Balun with a Fully-Differential Amplifier
Signal Chain Basics  
6/30/2015   1 comment
Single-ended signals are very common, but increasingly signal paths are being converted to differential signals as part of the signal chain. The benefits of differential signaling are particularly appealing with low supply voltage systems and for driving analog-to-digital converters (ADCs).
Signal Chain Basics (Part 101) ENOB Degradation Analysis Over Frequency Due to Jitter
Signal Chain Basics  
6/5/2015   3 comments
An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) sampling rate is determined by a clock signal that controls how often a voltage snapshot is taken for each conversion. However, clock signal timing isnít perfect, having some type of jitter that becomes part of the overall ADC sampling rate jitter
Signal Chain Basics (Part 100): Rethinking System-Level Management with Subsystem Over-Current Detection and Monitoring
Signal Chain Basics  
3/24/2015   Post a comment
Managing system thermal performance is critical in todayís electronic systems if you are to maximize performance and the user experience. As systems grow more powerful, and in many cases smaller in size, managing the thermal profile has become an ever-increasing challenge. Monitoring the current provides a leading indicator to potential thermal issues.
Signal Chain Basics (Part 99) Quantifying the Effects of RF Interference on Linear Circuits
Signal Chain Basics  
3/1/2015   Post a comment
A typical precision operational amplifier (op amp) may have a 1 MHz gain bandwidth product. Theoretically, you might expect RF signals that are in gigahertz to be attenuated to very small levels because they are far outside the amplifiers bandwidth.
Signal Chain Basics (Part 98) Industrial Market Transitions to 3.3V CAN Transceivers
Signal Chain Basics  
2/16/2015   Post a comment
Over the last few decades, controller area network (CAN) applications have shifted from using primarily 5V protocol controllers to incorporating largely 3.3V controllers.
Page 1 / 2   >   >>

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How can you accurately measure this impedance to give reliable lead-off detection in ECGs?
Fast switching transitions can yield some disadvantages. Interference in the frequency range of the switching transitions between approximately 20 MHz and 200 MHz increases dramatically.
The U-channel format consists of an open frame PSU mounted into a U-shaped aluminum chassis.
The primary difference between the speakers I designed and the micro- and mini-speakers that Eminence makes is that the diaphragm is connected directly to the voice coil as opposed to an Aluminum or cardboard 'former' to which the voice coil was connected
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