How to generate the open-loop SPICE simulation curves: Open or “break” the loop while injecting a small signal into a high-Z node and look at the response at different points in the loop
The PLL architecture is an effective approach to creating very linear ramping waveforms that are useful for radar applications. That being said, one consideration is how fast the ramp can change and still have the PLL track it. The loop filter needs to be able to allow the frequency to slew fast enough, and you need to take measures to avoid cycle slipping
How can you accurately measure this impedance to give reliable lead-off detection in ECGs?
Most voltage amplifier circuit offsets are a result of the amplifier’s input voltage offset, input bias current and input offset currents.
Most people are not familiar with electromechanical spinning. My goal here is to attempt to explain brushless-DC motors simply