This exploration will consider the effectiveness of Bennett's & Holloway's research into gang membership in the UK. The first thing to note is that this piece of research evaluates other statistical data and research and applies it to the problem of what the nature of gang membership is in the UK and compares this to the prevailing research out of the USA's criminal justice system and academic theory. This evaluation is split into three parts; the first considers the structure of the argumentative essay help in question where the nature, content, design, methods and results will be summarized. Then the second part will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the study and summarize by considering the adequacy of the research's findings. The third part will then discuss the research and consider its place and use in public policy and practical application.
Finally, this evaluation will summarize its findings and rate the effectiveness and application of this research piece. Prior to evaluating this research it must be noted that the available research into gang membership within the UK is very limited and the vast resources that Bennett & Holloway criticize is from the USA. The policing systems in the two countries are radically different, as well as the theoretical basis of punishment. In the UK, except for the recent policies of New Labour have been focused on restorative justice and applying objective legal principles to the punishment of the offender with a view to re-habilitation. The USA, on the other hand, focuses on the victim and allowing the victim a say in punishment creating a primitive system of retribution and deterrence, which explains the use of the death penalty, racial profiling and hard labour penal colonies.
Bennett & Holloway focus on the problem that gang membership is greatly misunderstood in the USA where most of the data, evaluation and understanding are formulated. This therefore provides a much distorted picture for the UK who relies on this data as the notion of gangs is relatively new, in respect to street gangs. Bennett & Holloway also introduce the second type of gang, which are criminal gangs. These are gangs that are a large part of organized crime and another scenario all together. However, their research will focuses on street gang memberships where the stereotypes are focused and consider whether the so-called rise in gang membership is distorted. This especially true with the effects of associating gangs with certain colors and elements of society.
The content of Bennett & Holloway's research is the use of statistical research data and applying it to the stereotyped data and theories emanating from the USA. The research that Bennett & Holloway use suggest that in the UK gang membership is thought to belong to primarily those of Afro-Caribbean and Bangladeshi descent in the UK; however is this actual fact or due to stereotypical images of these groups and the application of incorrect beliefs and data about gang membership and the criminalization of certain groups in the UK In the UK the Afro Caribbean are associated with street drugs and gun ownership; whereas the Bangladeshi are associated with cultural grouping and the use of violence much like the Hispanic grouping in the USA. In addition National Newspapers in the UK report gangs in respect to nationality, i.e. Turkish Gangs, Albanian Gangs, Asian Gangs, Black Gangs, except for the classifications of girl gangs and drug gangs. Bennett & Holloway argue that this is a much distorted picture because the gang nationalities are primarily associated with the stereotypes of certain activities of cultural groups .
The design of the study is set up to introduce the theoretical basics of gang membership theory in the USA. Then Bennett & Holloway go through and discuss the methods of the study which basically is the use and evaluation of statistical studies of gang membership within England and Wales. The study then examines the findings of this research and critically evaluates the findings. Finally the discussion section of this research piece applies the statistical findings to the theories that are from the USA to determine whether this theory is distorting the real politics and make-up of gangs in England and Wales.
The methods that are employed by Bennett & Holloway are to evaluate the research that has already been collated and determine whether the findings coincide with US theory or whether it reveals that it is contradicting these theories. In order to do this Bennett & Holloway have to critically evaluate the findings of the research and determine whether the statistics and the results coincide, because the reading of statistics by the researches seems to predominately influenced by the stereotypical theories of the USA.
The results of Bennett & Holloway determine that the theories of the USA are not applicable to England and Wales, in fact the theory is highly colorized and discriminatory against certain racial groups; however the findings of the research in England and Wales seems to be highly influenced by these theories. Bennett & Holloway argue that criminal gangs do not statistically support racial gang membership, rather the sources that the information has been collected is so convinced there is a connection false information is released. Therefore Bennett & Holloway argue that there needs to be a separate theoretical basis for gang membership in England and Wales as the US's theories are highly colorized and to apply this data distorts gang membership in England and Wales.