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Recent 2019 updates in V2X technology

In this article, I will examine some of the latest efforts in V2X technology. This system can’t come fast enough for my liking—we desperately need this technology to save lives. V2X must have a robust and isolated cybersecurity protocol. Ideally, a global platform should be developed, but probably regional areas will start the deployment with cross-region communications in mind for later interconnection globally.

Some company highlights

Ford jumps ahead of competitors committing to C-V2X cellular radio-based systems. See my EDN article on Autonomous vehicles: The electronics road to making them safe

I really like ST Microelectronics’ V2X solution. Their solution is a very complete solution and is also a Wi-Fi derivative specifically defined for fast-moving objects and enabling the establishment of a reliable radio link, even in non-line-of-sight conditions. ST is in a long-term partnership with Autotalks, a V2X chipset maker. Autotalks has a really nice scheme, their solution does not depend upon cellular networks—check it out on their website for the many benefits of this system.

Figure 1

ST's V2X solution with Autotalks' chipset

ST’s V2X solution with Autotalks’ chipset

For now, I will just introduce some new development ideas in V2X. You can expect a great deal more from EDN and Planet Analog on this topic as it matures in future articles as well:

Speed with safety on the highways1

Reference 1 discusses Platoon-based driving, especially on highways. In this scenario, multi-vehicles will use some sort of car-following model via Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) or Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication protocol environment. The goal is to drive to your destination in a shorter time with enhanced safety with a harmonized velocity which will allow for close following with smaller gaps and decreased aerodynamic drag.

The goal of the experiment is to treat each vehicle in the platoon as an individual agent and then design control algorithms involving the inter-vehicle gap and velocity to reach a consensus state. Interaction between vehicles will be essential for the system to work using a practical control strategy for Connected Vehicles (CVs).

Communications

There are N vehicles that will travel on a straight road with Vehicle 0 being the ‘leader’ with N-1 followers. This experiment uses a Bi-Directional Leader Following (BDLF) communications protocol. This means that every follower has access to real-time information of position and velocity of the leader, but the leader has access to information from each of the followers through V2X communication.

Figure 2

Click here for larger image 
A BLDF Communication Protocol (Test vehicle equipped devices (Image courtesy of Reference 1)

A BLDF Communication Protocol (Test vehicle equipped devices (Image courtesy of Reference 1)

Beacon Transmission Analysis

The beacon gives position, velocity, and direction periodically. Only one beacon is transmitted in the channel in this experiment. The beacon can have three states: Idle with no transmission, only one transmitted beacon was successfully transmitted, or more than one vehicle will try to send beacons in the channel—this causes collisions. Reference 1 does a probability study of a successful beacon delivery for the vehicles.

Car-following behavior

The study captures car-following behavior of the CVs in the same lane without a lane change and formulates a new car-following model.

Reference 1 also does a Stability Analysis using the small perturbation model and then does a Platoon Control design using longitudinal and lateral platoon control algorithms. These were followed by experiments using four equipped devices. IEEE 802.11p was used as the communication links. The On Board Unit (OBU) included a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), a master chip, and a Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) module and a Digital Global Positioning System (DGPS). The RoadSide Unit (RSU), containing the control box, DSRC module, and DGPS, received traffic flow information from the vehicles. The test involved platoon forming, vehicle merging, and vehicle diverging. See Figure 3 below:

Figure 3

Test vehicle equipped devices (Image courtesy of Reference 1)

Test vehicle equipped devices (Image courtesy of Reference 1)

The control algorithm which was designed in this study was limited by the need to consider communication delays and communication packet drops, which will be the focus of the group’s ongoing work.

A Review of Security Aspects in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks2

Security is crucial, especially in the upcoming 5G array of applications (see my article on MEMS, MITRE, and DARPA. Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) are a relatively new endeavor and still an early, immature technology phase. One glaring example is the lack of valid communications security protocols.

Cybersecurity will make this technology safer for everyone, passengers, driver and pedestrians. Check out how articles on this topic has been rapidly growing. Today there are three standards: U.S., Europe, and China. The U.S. American Standard IEEE 1609 Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) was one of the first and most advanced and is the leading standard right now. It is built on IEEE 802.11p standard for WLAN communication running at 5.9 GHz.

The European Standard is set by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and is ETSI EN 302 636-4-I. See Figure 4.

Figure 4

The encryption/decryption process for inter-vehicle communication in ETSI 102: a) upper figure is encryption process; b) lower figure is decryption process (Image courtesy of Reference 2)

The encryption/decryption process for inter-vehicle communication in ETSI 102: a) upper figure is encryption process; b) lower figure is decryption process (Image courtesy of Reference 2)

This type of security in Figure 2 has some weaknesses: The necessity of each vehicle having Internet access for validation and updating certificates. There are vulnerabilities that need to be taken care of in all of the following technologies: Hardware Security, Authentication, Detection and Correction of malicious data, Public key infrastructure, Group signature, and Certifying Authority. These are addressed in detail in Reference 2. Some milestones that need improving are computational cost and difficulty in establishing security keys that are more robust.

High-reliability and low-latency wireless communication for the IoT3

Cloud and Data Center Computing advances and communication technologies like 5G are growing faster than ever towards maturity. Intelligence is on a fast rising slope with Artificial Intelligence (AI). High reliability and low-latency (HRLL), that 5G brings to the party, is an enabler for the growth and success of V2X networks.

Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication (URLLC) and HRRL are critical to the success of V2X.

LTE-V2X networks can support over 1000 vehicles per cell in rural environments with an uplink latency below 55 ms. It also can provide a robust solution for mobility management. It can support data rates of 10 Mbps with a speed as high as 140 km per hour. This means that LTE-V2X can be especially useful at intersections by enabling a reliable exchange of cross-traffic assistance applications.

The ultimate objective of V2X communication networks is to enable high-efficiency and accident-free automated driving to use the available roadways more efficiently.

The following is an example of a future V2X deployment

Figure 5

A future application of V2X. (Image courtesy of Reference 3)

A future application of V2X. (Image courtesy of Reference 3)

These are just some examples of the latest research and testing being done to enable the use of V2X on our roadways to save lives, make traffic move more efficiently on our highways and streets, and to save lives and lower accident rates for safer driving. Some day we may eliminate accidents completely

Please voice your opinion on this topic and start a conversation with our very astute audience

References

  1. Platoon Control of Connected Multi-Vehicle Systems Under V2X Communications: Design and Experiments, Y. Li, W. Chen, S. Peeta, Y. Wang, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, IEEE 2019
  2. A Review of Security Aspects in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks, E. Talavera, A D Alvarez, J Naranjo, SPECIAL SECTION ON ADVANCED SOFTWARE AND DATA ENGINEERING FOR SECURE SOCIETIES, IEEE Access, 2019
  3. High-reliability and Low-latency Wireless Communication for Internet of Things: Challenges, Fundamentals and Enabling Technologies, Z. Ma, M. Xiao, Y. Xiao, Z. Pang, H.V. Poor, B. Vucetic, IEEE, 2018

More articles on this topic

Kobayashi Maru: Mathematics and Autonomous Vehicles

Machine Type Communications (MTP), vehicle safety and autonomous cars

Autonomous automotive sensors: How processor algorithms get inputs

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