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Teleportation, Quantum Mechanics & Quantum Bits

Quantum theory supported by many experiments reveals that the quantum connection between two particles can persist even if they are countless light years away from each other.

A class of experiments performed during the last few decades has shown that something we do in one particular place (such as measuring certain properties of a particle) can be somehow connected with something that happens in another potentially far distant place (such as the outcome of measuring certain properties of another distant particle), without anything being sent from here to there. (From NOVA: Spooky Action at a Distance.)

In May 2014, a New York Times report stated that physicists at the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience at the Delft University of Technology reported that they were able to reliably teleport information between two quantum bits separated by three meters, or about 10 feet.

What does this have to do with synthetic diamonds and electronics?

Synthetic diamond has become useful in solid-state electronics. Companies like Element Six grow high purity, single crystal, synthetic versions of diamond with an added twist of strategic doping (inserting certain impurities) that can turn the diamond insulator into a semiconductor. This hybrid has been shown to be able to detect ultraviolet light, to create UV LEDs and high-power microwave electronics.

The most unusual effect that has been discovered is “quantum spintronics,” which scientists believe could lead to ultra-secure communications. Spintronics is not new to electronics, just look inside the hard-drive in your PC. The giant magneto-resistive effect can detect microscopic domains on a disk, which represent 1s and 0s comprising the data it contains.

Used in quantum computing, synthetic diamond can be used as quantum bits or qubits (analogous to 1 and 0 in classical computers). Qubits can have an infinite number of values instead of being confined to a mere 1 or 0. This effort could bring quantum computers into reality. (See Figure 1.)

Figure 1

Synthetic-diamond-enabled quantum computers could potentially solve problems that would not be possible with standard computers. (Image: Element Six)

Synthetic-diamond-enabled quantum computers could potentially solve problems that would not be possible with standard computers.
(Image: Element Six)

Essentially, the spin rate and direction of one particle can simultaneously determine the spin rate and direction of its “entangled” partner on the other side of the universe. Researchers use laser light to entangle two electrons trapped inside small synthetic diamonds.

What about teleportation?

Quantum teleportation cannot move atoms, but it can transfer information about the state of an atom or particle from one place to another without that information moving in between.

The information to be teleported is encoded in a nearby nitrogen atom that is also trapped inside the diamond crystal.

Researchers have measured the state of the atom and its neighboring electron and sent the measurement to the distant location. The original information is destroyed but not transmitted, so it is safe from interception or eavesdropping.

The measurements are used to determine what type of manipulation should be performed on the distant entangled electron to recreate the encoded information. The information is considered “teleported” because it did not travel the distance between the two locations.

As mentioned in many of the Star Trek episodes, “Beam me up, Scotty!”

Is this just science fiction or do you think this is possible in the near future? Please share your thoughts and experiences.

23 comments on “Teleportation, Quantum Mechanics & Quantum Bits

  1. JamesBryant
    October 30, 2014

    If such phenomena are possible, they are already happening out there somewhere. So what observable effect would signal that quantum communication, or data teleportation, or even plain old-fashioned FTL, is taking place in the wild? What should astronomers be looking for? Or is it a job for particle physicists?

  2. D Feucht
    October 30, 2014

    Amir Aczel has written a book that is readable by those who prefer to avoid  equations (though the author is mathematically astute), The book reference is

    Entanglement: The Greatest Mystery in Physics

    Amir D. Aczel

    Four Walls Eight Windows

    New York, NY

    Copyright 2001

    ISBN: 1-56858-232-3

    When I read about these topics in leading-edge physics and also read what scanty information from black-ops the better UFOlogists have been able to obtain, I see a convergence.

  3. Steve Taranovich
    October 30, 2014

    @D Feucht—Thanks for that book Dennis. I will get a copy for sure.

  4. yalanand
    October 31, 2014

    Qubits can have an infinite number of values instead of being confined to a mere 1 or 0.

    @Steve, thanks for the post. I am curious to know while reading how are we going to know which state Qubits is in since it has infinite numbers ?

  5. yalanand
    October 31, 2014

    @D Feucht, thanks for recommending this book. Do you also recommend books such as The Mystery of the Aleph and Fermat's Last Theorem from the same Author ?

  6. yalanand
    October 31, 2014

    If such phenomena are possible, they are already happening out there somewhere.

    @James, I totally agree with you. Its very much possible that its already happening and we have failed to observe them. I think more efforts needs to put-in to search for such phenomenon.

  7. geek
    October 31, 2014

    “The measurements are used to determine what type of manipulation should be performed on the distant entangled electron to recreate the encoded information. The information is considered “teleported” because it did not travel the distance between the two locations”

    @Steve: Theoretically speaking, if the information about the electrons gets transmitted and the state of the second electron is changed according to the information, then technically there will be a replica of the original object. The original object will continue to exist because it hasn't been destroyed. I think that's more than just teleportation in this case.

  8. geek
    October 31, 2014

    “What should astronomers be looking for? Or is it a job for particle physicists?”

    @James: I think what can give the best results is greater integration and collaborations between experts of all domains. Astronomers or physicists alone can contribue significantly but when there's greater synergies between them the results are exponentially better. This is particularly important for ground-breaking innovations that the domain is not kept restricted.

  9. yalanand
    October 31, 2014

    The original object will continue to exist because it hasn't been destroyed. I think that's more than just teleportation in this case.

    @tzubair, that is valid point. I never thought it in that direction. I am eager to know if the original object will continue to exist once the information is transferred.

  10. yalanand
    October 31, 2014

    This is particularly important for ground-breaking innovations that the domain is not kept restricted.

    @tzubair, so true. Unfortunately we dont see such synergies in all the fields.I really hope  we will try to find more such synergies so that everyone can benefit from the inventions happening in the other fields.

  11. Steve Taranovich
    October 31, 2014

    @tzubair, yes, the original object will remain in existence but the spin and direction information transmitted will no longer exist at the original source—hence the security of the transmitted information. The replica of the original object will now be at that distant location but will exist only momentarily if not somehow captured at the remote site. That remote electrons spin and direction may change right after the event

  12. geek
    October 31, 2014

    “The replica of the original object will now be at that distant location but will exist only momentarily if not somehow captured at the remote site. That remote electrons spin and direction may change right after the event”

    @Steve: In that case, if constant information is being broadcasted at a very high speed from source to destination about the state of the electron and that information is used to modify the state of the electron at the destination at run time, can't the replica continue to exist? This can be more like a virtual avatar of an object.

  13. D Feucht
    October 31, 2014

    I do not know much more about Amir Aczel than what is in his books. As a matter of fact, I recently completed reading The Mystery of the Aleph by him. It is an engaging documentary on the mathematicians in the last 150 years or so who have worked on the concept of infinity in mathematics, beginning with Weierstrass, the “father” of mathematical analysis. In math, “analysis” means the study of analog mathematics – the math of the continuum.

    A minor note is struck in the drama when Cantor enters the scene, goes bonkers (literally; he spent a good fraction of his life in the mental health facility in Halle, Germany), only to be replaced by another German, Kurt Goedel, who comes to America, works on the same continuum hypothesis that Cantor worked on, and ends up in a mental institution in Maine.

    Maybe the human race is not ready for “infinity”. Nobody has looked upon the face of God and lived, as it were.

    On the other hand, Aczel concludes his book with progress in post-Goedelian continuum-hypothesis math that has not reportedly resulting in any more mental breakdowns. Perhaps we humans are being allowed to enter the Secret Garden, as Aczel calls it. The recent progress is exciting even to non-mathematicians.

    Don't start reading this book until the weekend or you'll be sleeping at your desk at work the next day!

  14. dassa.an
    October 31, 2014

    @D Feucht: Good one mate. Thank you for sharing this with the rest of the community. Very helpful and surely the book too will be. 

  15. Davidled
    November 1, 2014

    It is imaged that quantum computer composes of quantum circuit which atom particle is flowing in the quantum board instead of electron. Data information will be stored in the quantum memory chip. Measurement tool should be updated to troubleshooting the quantum circuit. Cost might hurdles the popularity of quantum computer in the market.

  16. vbiancomano
    November 4, 2014

    “Maybe the human race is not ready for “infinity”. Nobody has looked upon the face of God and lived, as it were.”

    My experience thus far is that individuals tend better to accept “infinity” and/or the existence of God. On the other hand, I've observed the mind tends to enter true “panic attack” destruct mode when it seriously contemplates what it would be like for the universe not to be here. 

  17. Navelpluis
    November 6, 2014

    All folks here in this forum can imagine that quantum computing will lay a bomb under current modern cryptology. It is all about prime numbers and fiddling with those numbers. For quantum computers this is the first optimum problem to solve. Hence, they are very good at it. So, for our generation, nothing will be safe anymore and we will be forced to go back to the Vernam principle… Hopefully for us a tiny cheap quantum chip will be available to -at least- generate proper key noise 😉

    www cryptomuseum  com  /  crypto  /   vernam.htm

     

  18. nasimson
    November 29, 2014

    Reading about these experiments I get the hints that quantum computing will arrive here sooner than later. It appears that it is a matter of decades, if not years. So quantum is for REAL, not theoratical.

  19. Sachin
    November 30, 2014

    I get the hints that quantum computing will arrive here sooner than later.

    @nasimson, Quantum computation is already a reality. For more details you can search for how D-Wave systems work.

  20. Sachin
    November 30, 2014

    It is all about prime numbers and fiddling with those numbers.

    @NNavelpluis, are you suggesting that using quantum computers it would be easy to decrypt the passwords?

  21. Navelpluis
    November 30, 2014

    Hi SachinEE,

    Yes indeed. I would not say that it always will be easy. Cracking keys often still is a matter of brute force. The point is that quantum computers are (going to be) extremely good in just doing that.

  22. Sachin
    November 30, 2014

     The point is that quantum computers are (going to be) extremely good in just doing that.

    @Navelpluis, thanks for sharing this info. So how are we goint to tackle this ? Do we have any solutions to protect the data in future ?

  23. nasimson
    December 30, 2014

    @Sachin:

    > Quantum computation is already a reality. For more details
    > you can search for how D-Wave systems work.

    D-wave? Isnt there an air of doubt around these as some experts are challenging if these are really operating n quantum principles?

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