Touch-screen technologies enable greater user/device interaction

(Editor's note : Touch-sense interfaces are increasingly popular and common in consumer products, appliances, and even test instruments, including medical products. To see a list of all articles we have published on this topic, click here .)

I ntroduction

Touch screens are not a new concept. Since the arrival of the iPhone® multimedia device, touch technology has become extremely popular and has benefited from a flood of innovations. Where previously touch screens were merely designed to replace keyboards and mice, today they convey a completely new operating experience. Featuring greater interaction between the user and device, this new “touch” experience has been achieved by a combination of different technologies. This article provides an overview of recent advances in touch-screen technology.

Resistive technology

Touch screens with resistive technology have been in common use for many years. They are inexpensive to manufacture and easy to interface.

In resistive-technology sensing, electrodes are connected to two opposite sides of a glass plate with a transparent, conductive coating. When a voltage is applied to the electrodes, the plate acts like a potentiometer, enabling the measurement of a voltage which depends on the position of the contact point, Figure 1 .

Once a similar, second plate is arranged in close proximity to the first with electrodes offset by 90°, and with the coatings facing each other, a 4-wire touch screen is achieved. If the top plate, which can also consist of transparent plastic, is deflected by a finger or pen so that the plates touch at the contact point, the x- and y-position of the pressure mark can be determined by comparing the voltages.


Figure 1: Functionality of a resistive touch screen.

Because resistive touch screens are pressure sensitive, they can be operated using any pen or a finger. In contrast to most capacitive technologies, they can also be operated if the user is wearing gloves. Due to the mechanical contact system and the DC operation, they have a high electromagnetic interference (EMI) tolerance. However, only one contact pressure point can be registered at a time, and no multitouch systems are possible.

Modern controllers like the Maxim MAX11800 autonomously calculate the X/Y coordinates, thus relieving the host CPU of this task. This facilitates rapid scanning which, for example, enables a clear and legible signature to be captured.

Capacitive styles

Another technology, termed “projected capacitive,” is gaining in popularity. The premise for this technology is straightforward: transparent conductor paths made of indium tin oxide (ITO) are applied to a transparent carrier plate mounted behind a glass plate. A finger touching the glass plate affects the electrical capacitor field and enables the contact to be detected and measured. Two fundamentally different approaches are used to implement a projected capacitive design.


With this design, a clearly defined charge is applied to a conductor path. An approaching finger conducts part of the charge to ground. The changing voltage at the conductor path is analyzed by the touch controller. The ITO conductor paths are arranged in X and Y directions in a diamond pattern (Figure 2 ).


Figure 2: Functionality and design of a self-capacitance touch screen.

The exact position of the finger on the glass plate is determined by the controller chip through interpolation. Only one finger position can be recorded at a time, so real multitouch functionality is not possible.

The MAX11855 is a controller for a self-capacitive touch screen. It can control up to 31 ITO paths. Its superior sensitivity enables touch detection from gloved hands, and its noise immunity allows for thin and simple ITO constructions without the need for special shielding or a safety gap between it and the LCD display.

 Intelligent control also makes pseudo-multitouch possible, e.g., zooming through the spread of two fingers. The integrated microcontroller enables the device to be used flexibly for touch screens of different dimensions as well as for buttons or slider controls.

Mutual capacitance

With this technology, an activating finger changes the coupling capacity of two crossing conductor paths. The controller monitors each line, one after another, and analyzes the voltage curves at the columns (Figure 3 ). This technology is capable of multitouch; several finger contacts can be detected simultaneously.


Figure 3. Functionality of a mutual-capacitance touch screen.

The geometry of the conductor paths is optimized for several applications. The MAX11871 touch-screen controller is designed for this technology and is the first controller on the market to allow a capacitive touch screen to be operated with gloved hands or pens. Another advantage is that the screen can be mounted behind a thick glass plate, so very robust systems can be built.

Haptics rising quickly as a driving force

A user’s operating experience is changing significantly because of the emerging use of haptics. Haptic feedback enables the operator to “feel” a device execute a function.

Currently, cell phones use a very rudimentary method for this tactile feedback. An integrated vibration motor, which is primarily used to signal an incoming call when the device is in silent mode, is activated for a short moment with every touch contact, and the whole cell phone briefly vibrates.

Future haptic systems will further refine this experience. In the newest designs, the touch-screen glass plate is moved by special actuators that operate magnetically, e.g., the new linear-resonant-actuators (LRA), or are piezo-based. Piezo devices are available in single-layer versions. which require a high voltage (up to 300V) or in a more-elaborate multilayer technology which can reduce the required voltage.

The MAX11835 haptic driver has been designed for single-layer, high-voltage piezo actuation. It is controlled directly by a touch-screen controller like any of the devices mentioned above. It enables a nearly latency-free operation, which is very important for the touch experience. Its waveform memory allows for individual movement patterns, which can further optimize the operating experience.

As an example, buttons can be sensed by fingertips moving over the display. Pressing the button then executes a function and creates a different waveform, which is detected differently by the finger. In this way touch-screen devices can be operated safely without the operator having to constantly look at the display to verify an action. This significantly increases personal safety for navigational systems or medical devices.


Figure 4; The function generator built into the MAX11835

reduces the delay for a fast and individual haptic experience

(iPhone is a registered trademark of Apple Inc.)

About the author

Roland Sandfuchs joined Maxim Integrated Products in 2005 as a Field Applications Engineer in Switzerland. He has an M.Sc Electrical Engineering degree from ETH Z ü rich Switzerland.

Editor's note : If you liked this article and are interested in “analog” issues such as signal input/output (sensors and transducer, real-world I/O);interfacing (level shifting, drivers/receivers); the signal chain, signal processing (op amps, filters, ADCs and DACs); and signal integrity, then go to the Planet Analog home page here for the latest in design, technology, trends, products, and news. Also, sign up for our weekly Planet Analog Newsletter here. You won’t be disappointed, and we won’t waste your time, that's a promise!

1 comment on “Touch-screen technologies enable greater user/device interaction

  1. ojisodjifowefji
    August 20, 2015

    Utilizing Tools and Technology
    Going hand-in-hand with developing a professional image is utilizing tools and technology. Today's agents can use a number of tools to help organize and promote their real estate businesses, including:

    Contact Management
    Keeping track of your clients is a must. You can go basic with a spreadsheet program or an email database program such as Outlook's, or you can invest in database software designed specifically for real estate professionals. Commercial products offer a number of useful features, including automated contact synchronization to your smart phone. No matter how you keep track of your contacts, keep the list current – updating, adding and deleting contacts as appropriate.

    Agent Web Sites
    Consider setting up your own domain name and Web site. While this may seem daunting to some, it is easier than ever to build a professional looking Web site. While large corporations may spend hundreds of thousands, or even millions of dollars, developing and maintaining their Web sites, you can do it for a very small financial investment.

    A Web site provides you with a “landing page” to direct your existing and potential clients to, while creating a professional, searchable Web presence. It is possible to have individual property Web sites to promote your listings and keep your sellers happy. You can also take advantage of social media by linking to your Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn profiles (and any other social media platforms).

    Real estate agent marketing software can help you manage your marketing efforts. These packages typically include templates for business cards, door hangars, postcards, property flyers, brochures, email campaigns and animated home tours to help you efficiently reach out to existing and potential clients.

    A number of apps for iPhone and Android-based devices are available to help you stay connected while you are outside the office. The House Hunter app, for example, allows agents to track and compare an unlimited number of homes, using a proprietary scoring method to identify houses that best match your clients' requirements. Open Home Pro allows you to run an open house on your iPad, follow up with leads, create listing pages and export collected data to Excel or other software.

    The Bottom Line
    Working as a real estate agent has its challenges: you don't get paid unless you sell, you can work long hours and still have no paycheck, and you have to adapt to changing market conditions. That said, it can be a rewarding career, both financially and professionally. Calling on your sphere of influence, projecting a professional image and utilizing today's real estate tools and technology can help you develop a successful career in real estate.


Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.